By: scribe Valdemir Mota de Menezes
In ancient Greece and Rome
During the Medieval Age and the Renaissance
During the Enlightenment
In the republican revolutions of the 18th century
19th to mid-20th century
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (November 2008)|
In later times
Comparable ideas in non-Western societies
- Friendliness is a pro-social set of behaviors seen in people who are pleasant, agreeable, interested in others, genial, empathetic, considerate, and helpful. Not all civil behaviors are friendly. For example, duelling in response to an intolerable insult has been considered a civil behavior in many cultures, but it is not a friendly action.
- Politeness focuses on the application of good manners or etiquette. Because politeness is informed by cultural values, there is substantial overlap between what is polite and what is civil. However, if the action in question is not related to civic virtues, then it may be polite or rude, without strictly being considered civil or incivil.
- Social graces
- The social graces include deportment, poise, and fashion, which are unrelated to civility.
- Incivility is a general term for social behavior lacking in civic virtue or good manners, on a scale from rudeness or lack of respect for elders, to vandalism and hooliganism, through public drunkenness and threatening behavior. The word incivility is derived from the Latin incivilis, meaning "not of a citizen."
- The distinction between plain rudeness, and perceived incivility as threat, will depend on some notion of "civility" as structural to society; incivility as anything more ominous than bad manners is therefore dependent on appeal to notions like its antagonism to the complex concepts of civic virtue or civil society. It has become a contemporary political issue in a number of countries.
- John Hale, The Civilization of Europe in the Renaissance (London 1993)
- Daniel Roche, La France des Lumières (Paris 1993)
- Parker, Harold T. The Cult of Antiquity and the French Revolutionaries (Univ. Chicago, 1937)
- Wood, Gordon S. The Creation of the American Republic, 1776–1787 (Univ. North Carolina Press 1969, repr. Horton 1975) ISBN 0-393-00644-1
- Peggy Noonan (2008) Patriotic Grace
- Stephen L. Carter Integrity
- The Bible (Philippians 2:3, Colossians 4:6, Galatians 5:22, Proverbs 22:11...)